Connect contemporary military strategy, actions, and leaders to historical precedents.
DefinitionConnection might include strategies pursued during the Cold War as well as engagements in the Balkans, Somalia, Iraq, and Afghanistan.
The strategies might include those of the following leaders:
- Alexander the Great
- Chandragupta Maurya
- Qin Shi Huang
- Julius Cæsar
- Zhuge Liang
- Khalid ibn al-Walid
- Cyrus II
- Genghis Khan
- Ulysses S. Grant
- Robert E. Lee
- Stonewall Jackson
- William Tecumseh Sherman
- What is the importance of researching and evaluating past military leader’s strategies?
Related Standards of Learning
History and Social Science
The student will apply social science skills to understand of the Civil War and Reconstruction eras and their significance as major turning points in American history by
- describing major events and the roles of key leaders of the Civil War era, with emphasis on Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, and Frederick Douglass;
- evaluating and explaining the significance and development of Abraham Lincoln’s leadership and political statements, including the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation and the principles outlined in the Gettysburg Address;
- evaluating and explaining the impact of the war on Americans, with emphasis on Virginians, African Americans, the common soldier, and the home front;
- evaluating postwar Reconstruction plans presented by key leaders of the Civil War; and
- evaluating and explaining the political and economic impact of the war and Reconstruction, including the adoption of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution of the United States.
The student will apply social science skills to understand the emerging role of the United States in world affairs during the end of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by
- explaining changes in foreign policy of the United States toward Latin America and Asia and the growing influence of the United States, with emphasis on the impact of the Spanish-American War;
- evaluating the United States’ involvement in World War I, including Wilson’s Fourteen Points; and
- evaluating and explaining the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, with emphasis on the national debate in response to the League of Nations.
The student will apply social science skills to understand World War II by
- analyzing the causes and events that led to American involvement in the war, including the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the American response;
- describing and locating the major battles and key leaders of the European theater;
- describing and locating the major battles and key leaders of the Pacific theater;
- evaluating and explaining how the United States mobilized its economic and military resources, including the role of all-minority military units (the Tuskegee Airmen and Nisei regiments) and the contributions of media, minorities, and women to the war effort;
- analyzing the Holocaust (Hitler’s “final solution”), its impact on Jews and other groups, and the postwar trials of war criminals; and
- evaluating and explaining the treatment of prisoners of war and civilians by the Allied and Axis powers.
The student will apply social science skills to understand the United States’ foreign policy during the Cold War era by
- locating and explaining the political boundary changes, and the formation of the United Nations and the Marshall Plan;
- explaining the origins and early development of the Cold War and how it changed American foreign policy, with emphasis on the Truman Doctrine and the policy of containment of communism;
- analyzing the efforts of the United States to protect Western Europe, including the role of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO);
- analyzing the changing role of the United States in Asia, including Korea, Vietnam, and China;
- evaluating and explaining how policy changes impacted the United States’ relationships in Latin America;
- analyzing the domestic impact of the Cold War; and
- evaluating and explaining the factors that caused the collapse of communism in Europe and how it changed American foreign policy, including the role of Ronald Reagan.
The student will apply social science skills to understand the social, political, and cultural movements and changes in the United States during the second half of the twentieth century by
- explaining the factors that led to United States expansion;
- evaluating and explaining the impact of the Brown v. Board of Education decision, the roles of Thurgood Marshall and Oliver W. Hill, Sr., and how Virginia responded to the decision;
- explaining how the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the 1963 March on Washington, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) had an impact on all Americans;
- analyzing changes in immigration policy and the impact of increased immigration;
- evaluating and explaining the foreign and domestic policies pursued by the American government after the Cold War;
- explaining how scientific and technological advances altered American lives; and
- evaluating and explaining the changes that occurred in American culture.
The student will apply social science skills to understand political and social conditions in the United States during the early twenty-first century by
- assessing the development of and changes in domestic policies, with emphasis on the impact of the role the United States Supreme Court played in defining a constitutional right to privacy, affirming equal rights, and upholding the rule of law;
- evaluating and explaining the changes in foreign policies and the role of the United States in a world confronted by international terrorism, with emphasis on the American response to 9/11 (September 11, 2001);
- evaluating the evolving and changing role of government, including its role in the American economy; and
- explaining scientific and technological changes and evaluating their impact on American culture
The student will apply social science skills to understand the civilizations of Persia, India, and China in terms of chronology, geography, social structures, government, economy, religion, and contributions to later civilizations by
- locating Persia in time and place, including Zoroastrianism and the development of an imperial bureaucracy;
- locating India in time and place, including its origins, early development, and the debate over the Aryan migrations;
- describing the origins, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of Hinduism;
- describing the origins, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of Buddhism;
- locating China in time and place, including the development of an empire and the construction of the Great Wall; and
- describing the impact of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism.
The student will apply social science skills to understand ancient Greece in terms of its impact on Western civilization by
- locating Greek civilizations in time and place and describing their major geographic features;
- describing the social and religious structure of ancient Greece;
- describing the cultural development of Athens and Sparta, with emphasis on the significance of citizenship and the development of democracy;
- evaluating the political and economic development of Greece, with emphasis on the Persian and Peloponnesian wars;
- evaluating the significance of the conquest of Greece by Macedonia and the formation and spread of Hellenistic culture by Alexander the Great; and
- citing and explaining contributions in drama, poetry, history, sculpture, architecture, science, mathematics, and philosophy, with emphasis on Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.
The student will apply social science skills to understand ancient Rome from about 700 B.C. (B.C.E.) to 500 A.D. (C.E.) in terms of its impact on Western civilization by
- locating Roman civilizations in time and place and describing their major geographic features;
- describing the social and religious structure of ancient Rome;
- describing the social structure and cultural development of the Roman Republic;
- describing and evaluating the political and military structure of the Roman Republic under the rule of Julius Caesar;
- describing and evaluating the political structure of the Roman Empire under the rule of Augustus Caesar;
- assessing the economic structure of Rome, Rome’s imperial conquests, and the Pax Romana; and
- evaluating the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Germanic invasions.