# Evaluate the model through assessment, or the prototype through testing.

## Definition

Evaluation should be based on- physical testing
- experimentation
- criteria
- appropriateness of materials
- processes
- market research
- trends.

## Process/Skill Questions

- What do you do when the evaluation produces negative results?
- What influenced your selection of evaluation methods?
- What is an example of physical testing?
- What is an example of market research?

## Related Standards of Learning

## History and Social Science

### CE.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by

- analyzing and interpreting evidence from primary and secondary sources, including charts, graphs, and political cartoons;
- analyzing how political and economic trends influence public policy, using demographic information and other data sources;
- analyzing information to create diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and spreadsheets;
- determining the accuracy and validity of information by separating fact and opinion and recognizing bias;
- constructing informed, evidence-based arguments from multiple sources;
- determining multiple cause-and-effect relationships that impact political and economic events;
- taking informed action to address school, community, local, state, national, and global issues;
- using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the costs and benefits of a specific choice;
- applying civic virtue and democratic principles to make collaborative decisions; and
- defending conclusions orally and in writing to a wide range of audiences, using evidence from sources.

### USII.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by

- analyzing and interpreting artifacts and primary and secondary sources to understand events in United States history;
- analyzing and interpreting geographic information to determine patterns and trends in United States history;
- interpreting charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of people, places, or events in United States history;
- using evidence to draw conclusions and make generalizations;
- comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, and political perspectives in United States history;
- determining relationships with multiple causes or effects in United States history;
- explaining connections across time and place;
- using a decision-making model to identify costs and benefits of a specific choice made;
- identifying the rights and responsibilities of citizenship and the ethical use of material or intellectual property; and
- investigating and researching to develop products orally and in writing.

## Mathematics

### 6.2

The student will

- represent and determine equivalencies among fractions, mixed numbers, decimals, and percents; and
- compare and order positive rational numbers.

### 6.5

The student will

- multiply and divide fractions and mixed numbers;
- solve single-step and multistep practical problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of fractions and mixed numbers; and
- solve multistep practical problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of decimals.

### 6.6

- add, subtract, multiply, and divide integers;
- solve practical problems involving operations with integers; and
- simplify numerical expressions involving integers.

### 6.10

The student, given a practical situation, will

- represent data in a circle graph;
- make observations and inferences about data represented in a circle graph; and
- compare circle graphs with the same data represented in bar graphs, pictographs, and line plots.

### 7.9

The student, given data in a practical situation, will

- represent data in a histogram;
- make observations and inferences about data represented in a histogram; and
- compare histograms with the same data represented in stem-and-leaf plots, line plots, and circle graphs.

### 8.12

The student will

- represent numerical data in boxplots;
- make observations and inferences about data represented in boxplots; and
- compare and analyze two data sets using boxplots.

### 8.13

The student will

- represent data in scatterplots;
- make observations about data represented in scatterplots; and
- use a drawing to estimate the line of best fit for data represented in a scatterplot.

## Science

### 6.1

The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which

- observations are made involving fine discrimination between similar objects and organisms;
- precise and approximate measurements are recorded;
- scale models are used to estimate distance, volume, and quantity;
- hypotheses are stated in ways that identify the independent and dependent variables;
- a method is devised to test the validity of predictions and inferences;
- one variable is manipulated over time, using many repeated trials;
- data are collected, recorded, analyzed, and reported using metric measurements and tools;
- data are analyzed and communicated through graphical representation;
- models and simulations are designed and used to illustrate and explain phenomena and systems; and
- current applications are used to reinforce science concepts.

### LS.1

The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which

- data are organized into tables showing repeated trials and means;
- a classification system is developed based on multiple attributes;
- triple beam and electronic balances, thermometers, metric rulers, graduated cylinders, and probeware are used to gather data;
- models and simulations are constructed and used to illustrate and explain phenomena;
- sources of experimental error are identified;
- dependent variables, independent variables, and constants are identified;
- variables are controlled to test hypotheses, and trials are repeated;
- data are organized, communicated through graphical representation, interpreted, and used to make predictions;
- patterns are identified in data and are interpreted and evaluated; and
- current applications are used to reinforce life science concepts.

### PS.1

The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which

- chemicals and equipment are used safely;
- length, mass, volume, density, temperature, weight, and force are accurately measured;
- conversions are made among metric units, applying appropriate prefixes;
- triple beam and electronic balances, thermometers, metric rulers, graduated cylinders, probeware, and spring scales are used to gather data;
- numbers are expressed in scientific notation where appropriate;
- independent and dependent variables, constants, controls, and repeated trials are identified;
- data tables showing the independent and dependent variables, derived quantities, and the number of trials are constructed and interpreted;
- data tables for descriptive statistics showing specific measures of central tendency, the range of the data set, and the number of repeated trials are constructed and interpreted;
- frequency distributions, scatterplots, line plots, and histograms are constructed and interpreted;
- valid conclusions are made after analyzing data;
- research methods are used to investigate practical problems and questions;
- experimental results are presented in appropriate written form; and
- models and simulations are constructed and used to illustrate and explain phenomena;
- current applications of physical science concepts are used.