# Produce a model, or prototype, of a design.

## Definition

Production should include- using detailed drawings (e.g., paper and pencil, computer-aided design)
- building a simple model
- reviewing your model for possible problems
- researching options for building a prototype
- producing your prototype.

## Process/Skill Questions

- What are the differences between a mock-up, a working mode, and a prototype?
- What is the difference between a model and a prototype?
- What is rapid prototyping?
- What materials and tools did you need?
- What steps did you follow to plan the production?
- How well did the product meet the goal?

## Related Standards of Learning

## English

### 6.1

The student will use effective oral communication skills in a variety of settings.

- Listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
- Participate as a facilitator and a contributor in a group.
- Participate in collaborative discussions with partners building on others’ ideas.
- Ask questions to clarify the speaker’s purpose and perspective.
- Summarize the main points a speaker makes.
- Summarize and evaluate group activities.
- Analyze the effectiveness of participant interactions.
- Evaluate own contributions to discussions.
- Demonstrate the ability to collaborate with diverse teams.
- Work respectfully with others and show value for individual contributions.

### 6.2

The student will create multimodal presentations that effectively communicate ideas.

- Use effective verbal and nonverbal communication skills to deliver multimodal presentations.
- Use language and vocabulary appropriate to audience, topic, and purpose.
- Give collaborative and individual formal and informal interactive presentations.
- Paraphrase and summarize key ideas of a presentation.

### 7.1

The student will participate in and contribute to conversations, group discussions, and oral presentations.

- Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using agreed upon discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
- Clearly communicate ideas and information orally in an organized and succinct manner.
- Ask probing questions to seek elaboration and clarification of ideas.
- Participate in collaborative discussions with partners building on others’ ideas.
- Make statements to communicate agreement or tactful disagreement with others’ ideas.
- Use language and style appropriate to audience, topic, and purpose.
- Give formal and informal presentations in a group or individually, providing evidence to support a main idea.
- Work effectively and respectfully within diverse groups.
- Exhibit willingness to make necessary compromises to accomplish a goal.
- Share responsibility for collaborative work.

### 7.2

The student will create multimodal presentations both individually and in a group that effectively communicate ideas.

- Select, organize, and create content to complement and extend meaning for a selected topic.
- Use effective verbal and nonverbal communication skills to deliver multimodal presentations.
- Use language and vocabulary appropriate to audience, topic, and purpose.
- Paraphrase and summarize a speaker’s key ideas.

### 8.1

The student will participate in, collaborate in, and report on small-group learning activities.

- Assume responsibility for specific group tasks and share responsibility for collaborative work within diverse teams.
- Exhibit willingness to make necessary compromises to accomplish a goal.
- Collaborate with others to exchange ideas, develop new understandings, make decisions, and solve problems.
- Include all group members, and value individual contributions made by each group member.
- Make statements to communicate agreement or tactful disagreement with others’ ideas.
- Use a variety of strategies to listen actively and speak using appropriate discussion rules with awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues.
- Use self-reflection to evaluate one’s own role in preparation and participation in small-group activities.

### 8.2

The student will develop and deliver multimodal, interactive presentations collaboratively and individually.

- Select, organize, and create multimodal content that encompasses opposing points of view.
- Choose vocabulary and tone appropriate to the audience, topic, and purpose.
- Use effective verbal and nonverbal communication skills to deliver multimodal presentations.
- Cite information sources.
- Respond to audience questions and comments.
- Differentiate between Standard English and informal language.
- Evaluate presentations.

## History and Social Science

### CE.1

The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by

- analyzing and interpreting evidence from primary and secondary sources, including charts, graphs, and political cartoons;
- analyzing how political and economic trends influence public policy, using demographic information and other data sources;
- analyzing information to create diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and spreadsheets;
- determining the accuracy and validity of information by separating fact and opinion and recognizing bias;
- constructing informed, evidence-based arguments from multiple sources;
- determining multiple cause-and-effect relationships that impact political and economic events;
- taking informed action to address school, community, local, state, national, and global issues;
- using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the costs and benefits of a specific choice;
- applying civic virtue and democratic principles to make collaborative decisions; and
- defending conclusions orally and in writing to a wide range of audiences, using evidence from sources.

## Mathematics

### 6.2

The student will

- represent and determine equivalencies among fractions, mixed numbers, decimals, and percents; and
- compare and order positive rational numbers.

### 6.8

The student will

- identify the components of the coordinate plane; and
- identify the coordinates of a point and graph ordered pairs in a coordinate plane.

### 6.9

The student will determine congruence of segments, angles, and polygons.

### 7.3

The student will solve single-step and multistep practical problems, using proportional reasoning.

### 7.4

The student will

- describe and determine the volume and surface area of rectangular prisms and cylinders; and
- solve problems, including practical problems, involving the volume and surface area of rectangular prisms and cylinders.

### 7.5

The student will solve problems, including practical problems, involving the relationship between corresponding sides and corresponding angles of similar quadrilaterals and triangles.

### 8.5

The student will use the relationships among pairs of angles that are vertical angles, adjacent angles, supplementary angles, and complementary angles to determine the measure of unknown angles.

### 8.6

The student will

- solve problems, including practical problems, involving volume and surface area of cones and square-based pyramids; and
- describe how changing one measured attribute of a rectangular prism affects the volume and surface area.

### 8.7

The student will

- given a polygon, apply transformations, to include translations, reflections, and dilations, in the coordinate plane; and

- identify practical applications of transformations.

### 8.8

The student will construct a three-dimensional model, given the top or bottom, side, and front views.

### 8.9

The student will

- verify the Pythagorean Theorem; and
- apply the Pythagorean Theorem.

## Science

### 6.1

The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which

- observations are made involving fine discrimination between similar objects and organisms;
- precise and approximate measurements are recorded;
- scale models are used to estimate distance, volume, and quantity;
- hypotheses are stated in ways that identify the independent and dependent variables;
- a method is devised to test the validity of predictions and inferences;
- one variable is manipulated over time, using many repeated trials;
- data are collected, recorded, analyzed, and reported using metric measurements and tools;
- data are analyzed and communicated through graphical representation;
- models and simulations are designed and used to illustrate and explain phenomena and systems; and
- current applications are used to reinforce science concepts.

### LS.1

The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which

- data are organized into tables showing repeated trials and means;
- a classification system is developed based on multiple attributes;
- triple beam and electronic balances, thermometers, metric rulers, graduated cylinders, and probeware are used to gather data;
- models and simulations are constructed and used to illustrate and explain phenomena;
- sources of experimental error are identified;
- dependent variables, independent variables, and constants are identified;
- variables are controlled to test hypotheses, and trials are repeated;
- data are organized, communicated through graphical representation, interpreted, and used to make predictions;
- patterns are identified in data and are interpreted and evaluated; and
- current applications are used to reinforce life science concepts.

### PS.1

The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which

- chemicals and equipment are used safely;
- length, mass, volume, density, temperature, weight, and force are accurately measured;
- conversions are made among metric units, applying appropriate prefixes;
- triple beam and electronic balances, thermometers, metric rulers, graduated cylinders, probeware, and spring scales are used to gather data;
- numbers are expressed in scientific notation where appropriate;
- independent and dependent variables, constants, controls, and repeated trials are identified;
- data tables showing the independent and dependent variables, derived quantities, and the number of trials are constructed and interpreted;
- data tables for descriptive statistics showing specific measures of central tendency, the range of the data set, and the number of repeated trials are constructed and interpreted;
- frequency distributions, scatterplots, line plots, and histograms are constructed and interpreted;
- valid conclusions are made after analyzing data;
- research methods are used to investigate practical problems and questions;
- experimental results are presented in appropriate written form; and
- models and simulations are constructed and used to illustrate and explain phenomena;
- current applications of physical science concepts are used.