# Design a model of a product or process, using computer-aided design systems.

## Definition

Design includes a selection of the following:- Sketching
- Simulations
- Drawings
- Prototypes

## Process/Skill Questions

- How does modeling assist in the design process?
- What is the meaning of the acronym CADD? What are its uses?
- How can drawings generate ideas in the design process?
- What are the criteria and constraints used when designing a product?

## Related Standards of Learning

## Mathematics

### 6.2

The student will

- represent and determine equivalencies among fractions, mixed numbers, decimals, and percents; and
- compare and order positive rational numbers.

### 6.8

The student will

- identify the components of the coordinate plane; and
- identify the coordinates of a point and graph ordered pairs in a coordinate plane.

### 6.9

The student will determine congruence of segments, angles, and polygons.

### 7.4

The student will

- describe and determine the volume and surface area of rectangular prisms and cylinders; and
- solve problems, including practical problems, involving the volume and surface area of rectangular prisms and cylinders.

### 7.5

The student will solve problems, including practical problems, involving the relationship between corresponding sides and corresponding angles of similar quadrilaterals and triangles.

### 8.6

The student will

- solve problems, including practical problems, involving volume and surface area of cones and square-based pyramids; and
- describe how changing one measured attribute of a rectangular prism affects the volume and surface area.

### 8.7

The student will

- given a polygon, apply transformations, to include translations, reflections, and dilations, in the coordinate plane; and

- identify practical applications of transformations.

### 8.8

The student will construct a three-dimensional model, given the top or bottom, side, and front views.

### 8.9

The student will

- verify the Pythagorean Theorem; and
- apply the Pythagorean Theorem.

## Science

### 6.1

The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which

- observations are made involving fine discrimination between similar objects and organisms;
- precise and approximate measurements are recorded;
- scale models are used to estimate distance, volume, and quantity;
- hypotheses are stated in ways that identify the independent and dependent variables;
- a method is devised to test the validity of predictions and inferences;
- one variable is manipulated over time, using many repeated trials;
- data are collected, recorded, analyzed, and reported using metric measurements and tools;
- data are analyzed and communicated through graphical representation;
- models and simulations are designed and used to illustrate and explain phenomena and systems; and
- current applications are used to reinforce science concepts.

### LS.1

The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which

- data are organized into tables showing repeated trials and means;
- a classification system is developed based on multiple attributes;
- triple beam and electronic balances, thermometers, metric rulers, graduated cylinders, and probeware are used to gather data;
- models and simulations are constructed and used to illustrate and explain phenomena;
- sources of experimental error are identified;
- dependent variables, independent variables, and constants are identified;
- variables are controlled to test hypotheses, and trials are repeated;
- data are organized, communicated through graphical representation, interpreted, and used to make predictions;
- patterns are identified in data and are interpreted and evaluated; and
- current applications are used to reinforce life science concepts.

### PS.1

The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which

- chemicals and equipment are used safely;
- length, mass, volume, density, temperature, weight, and force are accurately measured;
- conversions are made among metric units, applying appropriate prefixes;
- triple beam and electronic balances, thermometers, metric rulers, graduated cylinders, probeware, and spring scales are used to gather data;
- numbers are expressed in scientific notation where appropriate;
- independent and dependent variables, constants, controls, and repeated trials are identified;
- data tables showing the independent and dependent variables, derived quantities, and the number of trials are constructed and interpreted;
- data tables for descriptive statistics showing specific measures of central tendency, the range of the data set, and the number of repeated trials are constructed and interpreted;
- frequency distributions, scatterplots, line plots, and histograms are constructed and interpreted;
- valid conclusions are made after analyzing data;
- research methods are used to investigate practical problems and questions;
- experimental results are presented in appropriate written form; and
- models and simulations are constructed and used to illustrate and explain phenomena;
- current applications of physical science concepts are used.