Identify significant factors in the evolution of nursing care.
Identification should include
- a timeline of significant historical events
- significant contributions of various nursing care professionals
- current nursing care and future trends.
- What significant events have contributed to the development and practice of modern nursing? In what order would they be placed on a timeline?
- What did female nurses throughout history, such as Florence Nightingale, Clara Barton, Linda Richards, and Margaret Sanger, contribute to nursing?
- What did male nurses throughout history, such as St. Dominic, St. Francis of Assisi, John Ciudad, St. Camillus de Lellis, Friar Juan de Mena, James Derham, and others contribute to nursing?
- What are examples of current models of the delivery of nursing care?
- How has the delivery of health care changed, especially in relation to community-based care (e.g., home health, outpatient services)?
- What future trends may evolve in health care? Why?
Related Standards of Learning
- Apply information from texts to clarify understanding of concepts.
- Read and correctly interpret an application for employment, workplace documents, or an application for college admission.
- Analyze technical writing for clarity.
- Paraphrase and synthesize ideas within and between texts.
- Draw conclusions and make inferences on explicit and implied information using textual support.
- Analyze multiple texts addressing the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions.
- Analyze false premises, claims, counterclaims, and other evidence in persuasive writing.
- Recognize and analyze use of ambiguity, contradiction, paradox, irony, sarcasm, overstatement, and understatement in text.
- Generate and respond logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical thinking questions about the text(s).
- Critically evaluate quality, accuracy, and validity of information.
- Make sense of information gathered from diverse sources by identifying misconceptions, main and supporting ideas, conflicting information, point of view or bias.
- Synthesize relevant information from primary and secondary sources and present it in a logical sequence.
- Cite sources for both quoted and paraphrased ideas using a standard method of documentation, such as that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA).
- Define the meaning and consequences of plagiarism and follow ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.
- Demonstrate ethical use of the Internet.
History and Social Science
The student will apply social science skills to understand the process by which public policy is made by
- defining public policy and determining how to differentiate public and private action;
- examining different perspectives on the role of government;
- describing how the national government influences the public agenda and shapes public policy by examining examples such as the Equal Rights Amendment, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and Section 9524 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965;
- describing how the state and local governments influence the public agenda and shape public policy;
- investigating and evaluating the process by which policy is implemented by the bureaucracy at each level;
- analyzing how the incentives of individuals, interest groups, and the media influence public policy; and
- devising a course of action to address local and/or state issues.
The student will apply social science skills to understand of the Civil War and Reconstruction eras and their significance as major turning points in American history by
- describing major events and the roles of key leaders of the Civil War era, with emphasis on Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, and Frederick Douglass;
- evaluating and explaining the significance and development of Abraham Lincoln’s leadership and political statements, including the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation and the principles outlined in the Gettysburg Address;
- evaluating and explaining the impact of the war on Americans, with emphasis on Virginians, African Americans, the common soldier, and the home front;
- evaluating postwar Reconstruction plans presented by key leaders of the Civil War; and
- evaluating and explaining the political and economic impact of the war and Reconstruction, including the adoption of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution of the United States.
The student will apply social science skills to understand World War II by
- analyzing the causes and events that led to American involvement in the war, including the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the American response;
- describing and locating the major battles and key leaders of the European theater;
- describing and locating the major battles and key leaders of the Pacific theater;
- evaluating and explaining how the United States mobilized its economic and military resources, including the role of all-minority military units (the Tuskegee Airmen and Nisei regiments) and the contributions of media, minorities, and women to the war effort;
- analyzing the Holocaust (Hitler’s “final solution”), its impact on Jews and other groups, and the postwar trials of war criminals; and
- evaluating and explaining the treatment of prisoners of war and civilians by the Allied and Axis powers.
The student will apply social science skills to understand the social, political, and cultural movements and changes in the United States during the second half of the twentieth century by
- explaining the factors that led to United States expansion;
- evaluating and explaining the impact of the Brown v. Board of Education decision, the roles of Thurgood Marshall and Oliver W. Hill, Sr., and how Virginia responded to the decision;
- explaining how the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the 1963 March on Washington, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) had an impact on all Americans;
- analyzing changes in immigration policy and the impact of increased immigration;
- evaluating and explaining the foreign and domestic policies pursued by the American government after the Cold War;
- explaining how scientific and technological advances altered American lives; and
- evaluating and explaining the changes that occurred in American culture.