# CTE Resource Center - Verso - Cybersecurity in Food and Agriculture, Advanced Task/Competency List

CTE Resource Center - Verso

Virginia’s CTE Resource Center

2019/2020 Competency-Based Task/Competency List for Cybersecurity in Food and Agriculture, Advanced (8075/36 weeks)

Tasks/competencies bordered in blue are considered optional when marked as such; they and/or additional tasks/competencies may be taught at the discretion of the school division. All other tasks are considered essential statewide and are required of all students.

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Demonstrating Personal Qualities and Abilities

  1. Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
  2. Demonstrate critical thinking and problem solving.
  3. Demonstrate initiative and self-direction.
  4. Demonstrate integrity.
  5. Demonstrate work ethic.

Demonstrating Interpersonal Skills

  1. Demonstrate conflict-resolution skills.
  2. Demonstrate listening and speaking skills.
  3. Demonstrate respect for diversity.
  4. Demonstrate customer service skills.
  5. Collaborate with team members.

Demonstrating Professional Competencies

  1. Demonstrate big-picture thinking.
  2. Demonstrate career- and life-management skills.
  3. Demonstrate continuous learning and adaptability.
  4. Manage time and resources.
  5. Demonstrate information-literacy skills.
  6. Demonstrate an understanding of information security.
  7. Maintain working knowledge of current information-technology (IT) systems.
  8. Demonstrate proficiency with technologies, tools, and machines common to a specific occupation.
  9. Apply mathematical skills to job-specific tasks.
  10. Demonstrate professionalism.
  11. Demonstrate reading and writing skills.
  12. Demonstrate workplace safety.

Examining All Aspects of an Industry

  1. Examine aspects of planning within an industry/organization.
  2. Examine aspects of management within an industry/organization.
  3. Examine aspects of financial responsibility within an industry/organization.
  4. Examine technical and production skills required of workers within an industry/organization.
  5. Examine principles of technology that underlie an industry/organization.
  6. Examine labor issues related to an industry/organization.
  7. Examine community issues related to an industry/organization.
  8. Examine health, safety, and environmental issues related to an industry/organization.

Addressing Elements of Student Life

  1. Identify the purposes and goals of the student organization.
  2. Explain the benefits and responsibilities of membership in the student organization as a student and in professional/civic organizations as an adult.
  3. Demonstrate leadership skills through participation in student organization activities, such as meetings, programs, and projects.
  4. Identify Internet safety issues and procedures for complying with acceptable use standards.

Exploring Work-Based Learning

  1. Identify the types of work-based learning (WBL) opportunities.
  2. Reflect on lessons learned during the WBL experience.
  3. Explore career opportunities related to the WBL experience.
  4. Participate in a WBL experience, when appropriate.

Note: Competencies 39-43 have been added to ensure compliance with federal legislation: National FFA Organization's Federal Charter Amendments Act (Public Law 116-7, https://www.congress.gov/116/plaws/publ7/PLAW-116publ7.pdf). All inquiries may be sent to cte@doe.virginia.gov. Students are provided opportunities for leadership, personal growth, and career success. Instruction is delivered through three major components: classroom/lab instruction, supervised agricultural experience (SAE) program, and student leadership (FFA).

  1. Identify the role of supervised agricultural experiences (SAEs) in agricultural education.
  2. Participate in an SAE.

Exploring Leadership Opportunities through FFA

  1. Identify the benefits and responsibilities of FFA membership.
  2. Describe leadership characteristics and opportunities as they relate to agriculture and FFA.
  3. Apply for an FFA degree and/or an agricultural proficiency award.

Identifying the Necessary Skills to Understand Cybersecurity Concerns

  1. Explain the steps required for logical problem solving.
  2. Develop a graphic or concept map for the logical flow of information among devices within a network.
  3. Explain the communication processes on a machine and across networks.
  4. Compare wired and wireless networks.
  5. Create wired networks.
  6. Create wireless networks.
  7. Compare networking conceptual models.
  8. Explain connection-oriented and connectionless protocols.
  9. Explain services, their relationship to the OSI model, and potential vulnerabilities.

Examining Cryptology

  1. Explain how confidentiality is achieved through cryptology.
  2. Generate key pairs for data encryption.
  3. Use key pairs to encrypt/decrypt data.
  4. Explain how to generate a symmetric key.
  5. Explain certificates and public keys.

Identifying Threats in Precision Agriculture (PA)

  1. Identify groups affected by the use or misuse of PA.
  2. Explain the confidentiality, integrity, and availability (CIA) triad model of information security.
  3. Identify key threats to confidentiality.
  4. Identify key threats to integrity.
  5. Identify key threats to availability.
  6. Explain methods for strengthening the CIA triad as it applies to security in food and agriculture.
  7. Identify information management and cyber threats facing embedded and digital tools used by PA.
  8. Identify baseline security controls necessary to mitigate threats in PA.
  9. Explain agricultural industry standards related to cybersecurity.
  10. Develop best practices to protect and build resilience into PA.
  11. Identify the Center for Internet Security’s (CIS) top 20 critical security controls.
  12. Explain methods of building resilience into rural navigation, communication, and embedded tool applications.

Researching Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities in Livestock and Crop Production

  1. Explain the technologies used in PA and precision agronomics.
  2. Describe technologies used in greenhouse production.
  3. Describe the technologies used in precision livestock farming (PLF).
  4. Explain threats to PA technologies used in crop and livestock production.
  5. Explain the vulnerabilities of the technologies used in livestock production.
  6. Explain how PLF improves animal welfare and minimizes negative environmental effects.
  7. Identify vulnerabilities in PA technologies used in crop production.
  8. Explain how in-situ monitoring and data collection technologies are used in production agriculture.
  9. Explain how PA technologies are used on agricultural machinery and equipment.

Researching Future Trends in Cybersecurity and the Use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Food and Agriculture

  1. Identify how ML algorithms can be integrated into decision-support tools in PA.
  2. Explain how DSS are used in agriculture.
  3. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the Internet of Things (IoT).
  4. Research AI-driven technologies in agriculture and how they help increase food production with fewer resources.

Researching Potential Threats and Risks in Food and Agriculture

  1. Explain threats to food and animal feed processing and manufacturing.
  2. Explain how facilities engaged in the manufacture of food and feed for animals are vulnerable to cyberattack.
  3. Develop a mitigation plan to address cybersecurity threats related to agricultural production or processing facilities.
  4. Explain how to mitigate cybersecurity threats related to agricultural equipment and machinery.
  5. Propose methods to ensure agricultural equipment and machinery are resistant to cyberattack.
  6. Explain the importance of accuracy of information derived from sensor-based systems.
  7. Explain how social engineering can promote cybersecurity intrusion.
  8. Evaluate animal, plant, soil, and/or mechanical test results to identify cybersecurity intrusion.

Researching Cybersecurity in Agricultural Marketing and Distribution

  1. Explain threat vectors in the wholesale and retail distribution sectors of agricultural and food products industries.
  2. Explain methods of distribution disruption.
  3. Create a mitigation plan for threat vectors in the agricultural product transportation systems.

Maintaining Cybersecurity in Agricultural Business Management and Financing

  1. Explain how cyber intrusion might affect an agricultural enterprise.
  2. Design a plan to use management controls to secure information and operations and prevent security breaches.
  3. Create a secure customer relationship management (CRM) database.
  4. Identify cybersecurity threats facing financial institutions and the effect on the agricultural business sectors.
  5. Develop a cyber plan to safeguard data.
  6. Explain how to protect a business against online scams and fraud.
  7. Research the implications of intellectual property (IP) theft.
  8. Explain key threats perpetrated by threat actors to manipulate the commodities market.
  9. Explain national and international cybersecurity laws and policies related to agricultural enterprises.
  10. Explain the importance of securing a company’s network.
  11. Explain the costs associated with a data breach, security incident, privacy violation, or phishing/skimming incident.

Exploring Cybersecurity Careers in the Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resource Industries

  1. Research careers associated with cybersecurity in agriculture.
  2. Research educational requirements for cybersecurity jobs in agriculture.
  3. Conduct research on cybersecurity in the food, agriculture, and natural resource industries.
  4. Conduct an oral presentation on a subject related to cybersecurity in the food and agriculture industries.