Identify sources used to enforce the law at the local, state, and federal levels.
DefinitionIdentification should include the following sources:
- local codes and ordinances (e.g., zoning, licenses)
- Code of Virginia
- state and federal case law
- U.S. Constitution
- Virginia Constitution.
Related Standards of Learning
History and Social Science
The student will apply social science skills to understand the Constitution of the United States by
- examining the ratification debates and The Federalist;
- evaluating the purposes for government stated in the Preamble;
- examining the fundamental principles upon which the Constitution of the United States is based, including the rule of law, consent of the governed, limited government, separation of powers, and federalism;
- defining the structure of the national government outlined in Article I, Article II, and Article III; and
- analyzing and explaining the amendment process.
The student will apply social science skills to understand the federal system of government described in the Constitution of the United States by
- evaluating the relationship between the state government and the national government;
- examining the extent to which power is shared;
- identifying the powers denied state and national governments; and
- analyzing the ongoing debate that focuses on the balance of power between state and national governments.
The student will apply social science skills to understand the organization and powers of the state and local governments described in the Constitution of Virginia by
- examining the legislative, executive, and judicial branches;
- examining the structure and powers of local governments (county, city, and town);
- analyzing the relationship between state and local governments and the roles of regional authorities, governing boards, and commissions;
- investigating and explaining the ways individuals and groups exert influence on state and local governments; and
- evaluating the effectiveness of citizen efforts to influence decisions of state and local governments by examining historical or contemporary events.
The student will apply social science skills to understand the process by which public policy is made by
- defining public policy and determining how to differentiate public and private action;
- examining different perspectives on the role of government;
- describing how the national government influences the public agenda and shapes public policy by examining examples such as the Equal Rights Amendment, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and Section 9524 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965;
- describing how the state and local governments influence the public agenda and shape public policy;
- investigating and evaluating the process by which policy is implemented by the bureaucracy at each level;
- analyzing how the incentives of individuals, interest groups, and the media influence public policy; and
- devising a course of action to address local and/or state issues.